Monday, May 30, 2011

Six Steps to Keep Caterpillars Healthy and Free from Disease

Caterpillars of certain butterfly species are easier to raise than others.  In addition to OE that can infect monarch caterpillars, other butterfly caterpillars can get sick and die from viruses or bacteria as a result of many factors.  The following helpful hints can help you maintain a safe environment for raising butterfly caterpillars through to healthy adult butterflies.
  1. Raise caterpillars in manageable quantities.  Unless you are an experienced butterfly rearer or breeder, rearing caterpillars in mass quantities greatly increases the chance for larval disease.  
  2. Remove caterpillar frass regularly.  Whether rearing caterpillars in an open terrarium, it is always advisable to create a regular regimen of removing caterpillar frass as regularly as possible.  The longer caterpillars are exposed to their own frass, the more likely caterpillars can get sick.
  3. Keep Rearing Environment Free from Humidity.  Pathogens can multiply exponentially and easily infect caterpillars if caterpillar frass is allowed to remain moist.  With the exception of admirals or viceroys, raise caterpillars in an environment with plenty of airflow; allowing frass to dry naturally.
  4. Raise caterpillars on potted plants as opposed to cuttings when possible.   Raising caterpillars on potted plants has advantages over cuttings because of the nutritional value of live plants.  If you do use host plant cuttings, replace regularly, depending upon the species of butterfly and variety of host plant.  Do NOT allow cuttings to deteriorate or rot.  More.
  5. Disinfect your rearing environment regularly.  When dealing with the disinfection of viruses or bacteria, using a two chain quaternary ammonium compound aerosol (like Lysol) is the easiest method to disinfect 99.9 percent of viruses and bacteria.  Apply aerosol directly on non-porous containers and cages for 30 seconds and remove with clean paper towel.  Using bleach (Sodium hypochlorite) also is effective; but can be more labor intensive for some.  Chemical disinfectants are used for preventative measures and cannot heal caterpillars once they are infected.
  6. Understand which butterfly taxonomic groups are more susceptible to disease and require more attention:  Some species, species groups, or genera require more attention than others.  Use the following matrix as a general guideline:

Taxonomic Group:
Disease Susceptibility:
Special Concerns:
Nymphalidae:  Nymphalinae and Melitaeinae (brushfoot butterflies including anglewings, tortoiseshells, ladies, buckeyes, checkerspots, and crescent spots.)
Use open terrarium technique. Disinfect, replace cuttings, and remove frass every five days.
Nymphalidae:  Danainae (monarchs and queens) and Heliconiinae (longwings)
Disinfect for OE; remove frass and replace cuttings every three or four days.
Nymphalidae: Limenitidinae (admirals and viceroys) 
Larvae are less susceptible to disease when rearing in a humid environment as they are accustomed to this in nature.
Nymphalidae: Satyrinae (wood nymphs and ringlets only ) 
Larvae are generalists and avoid disease if reared in potted grasses of many common varieties
Nymphalidae:  Greater Fritillaries from the genus, Speyeria.
Special needs group.  See instructions located here.
Pieridae and Lycaenidae (white/sulphurs/orange tips and blues/coppers/hairstreaks)
Avoid closed container rearing whenever possible. Larvae are very susceptible to illness when overexposed to their own moist frass; even if reared in isolation.
Papilionidae (Tiger and machaon group swallowtails)
Avoid closed container rearing whenever possible.  Avoid humidity; especially for Western North American species.
Papilionidae:  Papilio indra complex
Special needs group.  See instructions located here.

This matrix is a general summary and is not all-inclusive.  For more information about species-specific rearing strategies, please see or email me.

Friday, May 27, 2011

Five Simple Steps to Obtain Butterfly Eggs and Caterpillars

One of the simplest ways to obtain butterfly eggs is to collect female butterflies and set them up in a cage to get eggs so that the eggs hatch into caterpillars which later become butterflies.  This can be accomplished by following these basic five steps.

1.  Take a reliable butterfly net and find the variety of butterfly you're looking for in its natural habitat. More.
2.  Learn to separate male butterflies from female butterflies.  More.
3.  Collect a live female butterfly and feed feed her regularly to keep her alive.  More.
4.  Place your female butterfly in a small plastic tub, nylon sleeve, or butterfly cage depending on the variety of butterfly.  More.
5.  Properly care for your eggs before they hatch into caterpillars.  More.

For more information on how to care for butterfly eggs, caterpillars, and the inexpensive equipment needed to rear them through to adult butterfly, please visit us at or please email me at for specific help.

Wednesday, May 25, 2011

Raising Giant Swallowtails

Giant swallowtails can be very common in the southern United States from California east to Florida where they feed on new growth of citrus trees. It's really important to remember that if you find a citrus tree, always try to find ligher-colored leaves that leafed out recently. These are the leaves female giant swallowtails prefer to lay their eggs.

In other words, don't be intimidated at a large citrus tree when looking for giant swallowtail eggs and caterpillars. Simply focus on new growth; whether found on the tips of branchs or suckers coming out of the trunk.

For more information, please see